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International Conference on Polymer Waste - Biopolymers & Bioplastics, will be organized around the theme “Reduce Reuse Recycle of Polymers in day to day life”
Polymer Science 2019 is comprised of keynote and speakers sessions on latest cutting edge research designed to offer comprehensive global discussions that address current issues in Polymer Science 2019
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Polymer recycling is a way to reduce environmental problems caused by polymeric waste accumulation generated from day-to-day applications of polymer materials such packaging and construction. The recycling of polymeric waste helps to conserve natural resource because the most of polymer materials are made from oil and gas. One of the useful properties of polymers is that they are unreactive, so they are suitable for storing food and chemicals safely. Unfortunately, this property makes it difficult to dispose of polymers. They are often buried in landfill sites or incinerated - burned.
Plastics have become widely used materials in everyday life due to their special properties such as durability, easy processing, lightweight nature, and low cost of production. However, because of their stable and nonbiodegradable nature, postconsumer plastics become an issue to the environment. The growing amounts of waste are generated, as plastic products are commonly used only once before disposal. The alternatives of practical techniques for solid waste management are redesign, reprocessing, and recycling. Thus, even recycling is not the most profitable technique for the treatment of plastic waste, and it should be constantly developed. The recycling of plastic waste helps to conserve natural resources due to polymeric materials being made from oil and gas. There are four main recycling methods: reuse, mechanical recycling, chemical recycling, and energy recovery. Mechanical recycling turns polymeric waste into new polymer products when energy recovery process releases the energy contained within plastics through combustion and chemical recycling converts waste polymers into feedstock for chemicals/monomers/fuels production.
- Track 1-1Recycling
- Track 1-2Biodegradation
- Track 1-3Incineration
Increasing volumes of synthetic polymers are manufactured for various applications. The disposal of the used materials is becoming a serious problem. Unlike natural polymers, most synthetic macromolecules cannot be assimilated by microorganisms. Although polymers represent slightly over 10% of total municipal waste, the problem of nonbiodegradability is highlighted by overflowing landfills, polluted marine waters, and unsightly litter. Existing government regulations in Europe and anticipated regulations in the United States will greatly limit the use of polymers in large volume applications (packaging, water treatment, paper and textile sizing, etc.) unless acceptable means of waste management are available. Total management of polymer wastes requires complementary combinations of biodegradation, incineration, and recycling. Biodegradation is the most desirable long-term future solution and requires intensive research and development before it becomes practical. On the other hand, incineration and recycling can become operational in a relatively short time for the improvement of the situation at present and in the near future.
Plastics are inexpensive, easy to mold, and lightweight. These and many other advantages make them very promising candidates for commercial applications. In many areas, they have substantially suppressed traditional materials. However, the problem of recycling still is a major challenge. There are both technological and economic issues that restrain the progress in this field. Herein, a state-of-art overview of recycling is provided together with an outlook for the future by using popular polymers such as polyolefins, poly(vinyl chloride), polyurethane, and poly(ethylene terephthalate) as examples. Different types of recycling, primary, secondary, tertiary, quaternary, and biological recycling, are discussed together with related issues, such as compatibilization and cross-linking. There are various projects in the European Union on research and application of these recycling approaches; selected examples are provided in this article. Their progress is mirrored by granted patents, most of which have a very limited scope and narrowly cover certain technologies. Global introduction of waste utilization techniques to the polymer market is currently not fully developed, but has an enormous potential.
Plastic recycling is the process of recovering different types of plastic material in order to reprocess them into varied other products, unlike their original form. An item made out of plastic is recycled into a different product, which usually cannot be recycled again.
Stages in Plastic Recycling
Before any plastic waste is recycled, it needs to go through five different stages so that it can be further used for making various types of products.
- Sorting: It is necessary that every plastic item is separated according to its make and type so that it can be processed accordingly in the shredding machine.
- Washing: Once the sorting has been done, the plastic waste needs to be washed properly to remove impurities such as labels and adhesives. This enhances the quality of the finished product.
- Shredding: After washing, the plastic waste is loaded into different conveyer belts that run the waste through the different shredders. These shredders tear up the plastic into small pellets, preparing them for recycling into other products.
- Identification and Classification of Plastic: After shredding, a proper testing of the plastic pellets is conducted in order to ascertain their quality and class.
- Extruding: This involves melting the shredded plastic so that it can be extruded into pellets, which are then used for making different types of plastic products.
Biopolymers are polymers that can be found in or manufactured by, living organisms. These also involve polymers that are obtained from renewable resources that can be used to manufacture Bioplastics by polymerization. There are primarily two types of Biopolymer, one that is obtained from living organisms and another that is produced from renewable resources but require polymerization. Those created by living beings include proteins and carbohydrates.
Unlike synthetic polymers, Biopolymers have a well-marked structure. These polymers have a uniformly distributed set of molecular mass and appear as a long chain of worms or a curled up string ball under a microscope. This type of polymer is differentiated based on their chemical structure.
These polymers play an essential role in nature. They are extremely useful in performing functions like storage of energy, preservation and transmittance of genetic information and cellular construction.
- Sugar based polymers, such as Polyactides, naturally degenerate in the human body without producing any harmful side effects. This is the reason why they are used for medical purposes. Polyactides are commonly used as surgical implants.
- Starch based biopolymers can be used for creating conventional plastic by extruding and injection molding.
Bioplastics are plastics derived from renewable biomass sources, such as vegetable fats and oils, corn starch, straw, woodchips, food waste, etc. Bioplastic can be made from agricultural by-products and also from used plastic bottles and other containers using microorganisms. Common plastics, such as fossil-fuel plastics (also called petrobased polymers) are derived from petroleum or natural gas. Not all bioplastics are biodegradable non- biodegrade more readily than commodity fossil-fuel derived plastics. Bioplastics are usually derived from sugar derivatives, including starch, cellulose, lactic acid. As of 2014, bioplastics represented approximately 0.2% of the global polymer market. Bioplastics are the plastics that are created by using biodegradable polymers.
Bio plastics or biodegradable plastics are by chemical nature polyhydroxy alkanoates or PHAs. They are currently being produced in large amount by microbial fermentation process in industries. Among all the polyhydroxy alkanoates, polyhydroxy butyrate or PHB is the most important one as bio plastics.
The conventional plastics, made from coal or oil are not biodegradable. They survive 100s of years and are a major source of environmental pollution, often resulting in ecological imbalance. A heavy demand for biodegradable plastic materials has generated in the modern world. There are some attempts to chemically synthesise biodegradable polyesters such as polylactic acid and polyglycolic acid. The production of polyhydroxy alkanoates by fermentation is the preferred process for production of biodegradable plastics.
Biodegradable plastics can be composed of bio-plastics, which are plastics made from renewable raw materials. There are normally two forms of biodegradable plastic, injection molded and solid. The solid forms normally are used for items such as food containers, leaf collection bags, and water bottles.
Bioplastics can also be processed in very similar ways to petrochemical plastics such as injection moulding, extrusion and thermoforming. To improve their tensile strength, bioplastic polymers can be blended with their co-polymers or with other polymers
Biodegradable and short-lived products –
- Shopping bags
- Compostable waste collection bags
- Trays and Punnets for vegetables, fruits, meat and eggs.
- Disposable catering servicewares
- Implants such as screws, pins or plates
- Material for pills and capsules
- Mulch films
Non-Biodegradable and durable products –
- Automotive interiors like seats, head rests or arm rests
- Mobile phone cases
Our biopolymers are suitable for a wide range of catering and food-to-go products, from thermoformed coffee cup lids to injection-moulded cutlery and coatings for paper and board. Our plant-based products perform as well as oil-derived equivalents, and are 100% biodegradable and ready to compost along with food waste.
Bioplastics provide an ideal solution, removing the environmental impact without removing the packaging. Our plant-based polymers compost at the end of their useful life. Our products can be used for a wide range of packaging items, from primary and secondary packaging films, laminates and rigid sheets for thermoforming and vacuum forming, to point-of-sale displays, trays and merchandisers.
Bioplastics meet the demand for both long-life and cost-effective materials that underpin the sustainability of operations. Our product ranges are optimised for films, fibres, casting, moulded and roto-moulded items.
Biobased biopolymers offer advantages not only on the raw materials side but also on the disposal side through certain promising end-of-life (EOL) options. Especially waste disposal with energy recovery has an added benefit, which lies in gaining carbon neutral energy while allowing multiple uses after possible recycling. The Commission said that all of the composts containing biodegradable polymer materials could be classified using a risk assessment system at a higher toxicity level. Biodegradable biopolymer waste can be treated by aerobic degradation, composting, or anaerobic digestion .When biopolymers are composted or digested, their individual elements are recycled naturally, in particular their carbon and hydrogen content. The largest segment of the market, packaging, is expected to reach nearly 1.7 billion pounds in 2016. The market in 2011 is estimated at 656 million pounds, making the five-year CAGR 20.5%. The second-largest segment, made up of fibers/fabrics, is expected to increase in volume from an estimated 134 million pounds in 2011 to 435 million pounds in 2016, for a five-year CAGR of 26.6%.
There has been a marked increase in interest in biodegradable materials for use in packaging, agriculture, medicine, and other areas. In particular, biodegradable polymer materials (known as biocomposites) are of interest. As a result, many researchers are investing time into modifying traditional materials to make them more userfriendly, and into designing novel polymer composites out of naturally occurring materials. A number of biological materials may be incorporated into biodegradable polymer materials, with the most common being starch and fiber extracted from various types of plants. The belief is that biodegradable polymer materials will reduce the need for synthetic polymer production (thus reducing pollution) at a low cost, thereby producing a positive effect both environmentally and economically.
According to environmental and safety-conscious behaviour in the 21th century, it is necessary to strive to reduce all those activities that cause environmental damage in every aspect of life. More emphasis should be placed on recycling, waste-handling and environmental-friendly solutions, due to the increased amount of waste caused by the penetration of plastics. Plastic manufacture is a constantly growing industry – especially the production of packaging – so the amount of plastic waste generated is also growing steadily. Only a part of the accumulated waste is recycled, another part is destroyed and the remaining amount will continue to pollute the environment. One form of destruction may be energy recovery or incineration. Destruction is a form of energy recovery or incineration which is subject to strict legal requirements in addition to other possible activities. It could pose a serious burden on the human and natural environment if the process is not properly controlled and monitored. This article writes of the situation that seemingly a growing amount of plastic waste is used in residential combustion appliances, of which adverse environmental and health effects the majority of citizens are not aware, so these will be shown in particular. In this article, we examine the environmental and health effects and harm caused by the burning of plastics in detail. We write this study with the purpose of drawing people’s attention to the importance of reducing the quantities of plastic waste and thus the environmental impact they cause as well as the human and environmental risks of incineration.
Plastics are organic compounds consisting of giant molecules which are mostly produced from synthetic oil derivatives. According to user needs, their quality (such as flexibility, impact, fire resistance and special colours, etc.) depends on the various additives allocated into the raw material. In terms of its type, plastic can be thermoplastics or thermosetting polymers. According to Central Statistics Office (CSO) data, in Hungary the population produces approximately 300 thousand tons of plastic waste annually. Most of the plastic waste is thermoplastic packaging, therefore this type of waste is examined in detail. As the majority of plastic does not biodegrade in nature, the most important task is to reduce waste emissions, create responsible management of resulting waste and recycling.
- Prevention-minimization of waste, reduction of hazardous waste, reuse
- Preparation for resuse- reparation, purification and demolition
- Recycling- material sourcing, raw material production
- Other recovery- energy recovery, fuel disposal
- Incineration- disposal, landfilling
The incineration of waste as a fuel generates heat energy in cement factories and power plants which is utilized in technological equipment. The resulting heat is used for operating systems, heating and generating power. The disadvantage of combustion of plastics is the air pollution caused by the noxious fumes released into the atmospheres.
Plastic waste can only be incinerated in licensed plastic waste incineration plants, all other forms of burning plastic waste are banned. Mostly plastic waste is generated by common households. The introduction of advanced selective waste collection systems has allowed the separation of different materials and types of waste. An important task is to emphasize the benefits of the separation of plastics, so they become re-usable and less polluting to our environment. Unfortunately, in Hungary, due to the economic crisis, more and more families are having trouble purchasing fuel for the winter, so the household waste is incinerated, and the harmful effects are not taken into account. During incineration, plastics cause permanent damage to the combustion heater in the flue systems and the resulting combustion products pose a serious threat to both humans and the environment. The burning of plastics is a complex chemical process. Depending on their structure, plastics can be micro-molecular or macro-molecular compounds. During plastic combustion, different phases take place, such as warming, degradation, flashover, combustion – all which are present at the same time. Low-molecular compounds can be vaporized directly in the air, and depending on their variety, are able to form a combustible mixture, or oxidize in solid form. Macro-molecular plastics have to decompose into small molecule compounds to initiate the combustion process. Burning is accompanied by the formation of chark, coking extent depends on the conditions of combustion. Two zones are formed during the combustion of most plastic. The first zone is the gas evolution (pyrolysis zone), the second zone is the chark zone (between the surface and the pyrolysis zone). The chark zone consists of porous solid residues. Gases generated during the decomposition of the plastic composite products are extremely dangerous. The most common household plastics are:
- Polyethylene (PE)
- Polyethylene terephthalate (PET)
- Polypropylene (PP)
- Polyamide (PA)
- Poly (vinyl chloride) (PVC)
- Polyurethane (PU)
Whole green composites are the composite materials that are made from both renewable resource based polymer (biopolymer) and biofiller. Whole green composites are recyclable, renewable, triggered biodegradable and could reduce the dependency on the fossil fuel to a great extent when used in interior applications. Whole green composites could have major applications in automotive interiors, interior building applications and major packaging areas. Despite the large number of recent reviews on green composites defined as biopolymers or bio-derived polymers reinforced with natural fibers for bioprocessing of materials, limited investigation has taken place into the most appropriate applications for these materials. Global composite materials industry reached $19.6B in 2011, marking an annual increase of 8.2% from 2010, and driven by recovering of majority of markets. Market value of end use products made with composites was $55.6B in 2011. North American composites industry accelerated by 9 % in 2014, Europe increased by 8%while Asia grew by 7% in 2015. By 2017, composite materials industry is expected to reach $ 29.9B (7% CAGR) while end products made with composite materials market value is expected to reach $85B Global Automotive composite materials market was estimated to be around $ 2.8 B in 2015, and forecast to reach $ 4.3 B by 2017 @ CAGR of approx. 7%.
- Bio composites in Biopolymers
- Biopolymers usage in Bio Ceramics
- Biopolymers in Nanotechnology
- Polymer Physics
- Bio-nano Composites for Food packing applications of Biopolymers
- Micro & Nano Blends based on Natural polymers
- Wood & Wood polymer Composites in Biopolymers
- Green Plastics: An Introduction to the New Science of Biodegradable Plastics
Most plastics crumble into ever-tinier fragments as they are exposed to sunlight and the elements. Except for the small amount that's been incinerated–and it's a very small amount–every bit of plastic ever made still exists, unless the material's molecular structure is designed to favour biodegradation. Unfortunately, cleaning up the garbage patch is not a realistic option, and unless we change our disposal and recycling habits, it will undoubtedly get bigger. One sensible solution would require manufacturers to use natural biodegradable packaging materials whenever possible, and consumers to conscientiously dispose of their plastic waste. Thus, instead of consigning all plastic trash to a land fill, some of it may provide energy by direct combustion, and some converted for reuse as a substitute for virgin plastics. The latter is particularly attractive since a majority of plastics are made from petroleum, a diminishing resource with a volatile price.
The energy potential of plastic waste is relatively significant, ranging from 10.2 to 30.7MJ kg Ã, suggesting application as an energy source and temperature stabilizer in municipal incinerators, thermal power plants and cement kilns. The use of plastic waste as a fuel source would be an effective means of reducing landfill requirements while recovering energy. This, however, depends on using appropriate materials. Inadequate control of combustion, especially for plastics containing chlorine, fluorine and bromine, constitutes a risk of emitting toxic pollutants.
Whether used as fuels or a source of recycled plastic, plastic waste must be separated into different categories. To this end, an identification coding system was developed by the Society of the Plastics Industry (SPI) in 1988, and is used internationally. This code, shown on the right, is a set of symbols placed on plastics to identify the polymer type, for the purpose of allowing efficient separation of different polymer types for recycling.
In search of novel Advanced Materials solutions and keeping an eye on the goal of sustainable production and consumption, bioplastics have several (potential) benefits. The use of renewable resources to produce bioplastics the key for increasing resource productivity, the resources can be cultivated on an (at least) annual basis, the principle of cascade use, as biomass can primarily be used for materials and then for energy generation, a reduction of the carbon footprint and GHG egressions of some materials and products – saving fossil fuels resources, and for substituting them step by step.
The use of biopolymers could markedly increase as more durable versions are developed, and the cost to manufacture these bio-plastics continues to go fall. Bio-plastics can replace conventional plastics in the field of their applications also and can be used in different sectors such as food packaging, plastic plates, cups, cutlery, plastic storage bags, storage containers or other plastic or composite materials items you are buying and therefore can help in making environment sustainable. Bio-based polymeric materials are closer to the reality of replacing conventional polymers than ever before. Nowadays, biobased polymers are commonly found in many applications from commodity to hi-tech applications due to advancement in biotechnology and public awareness.
Polymers have become a necessary commodity of everyday life and are used for manufacturing of hundreds of things of our daily use from house hold items to transportation and communication. Polymers are also used in medicine; however, all the polymers cannot be used for this purpose. For medical applications, a polymer should have the following properties: (a) bio-safe and non-toxic which means that it should be non-carcinogenic, non-teratogenic, non-mutagenic, non-cytotoxic, non-pyrogenic, nonhemolytic, non-allergenic and chronically non-inflammative etc. (b) must be effective in terms of functionality, durability, and performance (c) must be interfacial, mechanically and biologically biocompatible and (d) sterilizable through different techniques like autoclave, dry heating, electron beam irradiation etc. It should also be chemically inert and very stable i.e. it should not decay or disintegrate to give obnoxious toxic products with the passage of time especially when it is intended to be implanted within body. The selection of a polymer for a particular medical application is also made upon the basis of its host response. Therefore a biopolymer is any polymeric non-viable material which is used in medical devices or applications that where it is intended to interact with biological systems such as tissues, cells, bones, blood and any other living substance.
Biopolymers used in manufacture of medical devices which are used to replace or repair some diseased, damaged or non-functional piece of tissue or bone like replacement of joints, heart valves, arteries, teeth, tendons, ligaments, ocular lenses etc. More advanced devices are used to partially or entirely replace or assist in functioning of a vital organ like lung, kidney, liver, heart etc. Furthermore, biocompatible and degradable polymers are used to prepare advanced and efficient drug delivery systems. Drugs (like pilocarpine, contraceptives, insulin etc.) are encapsulated within polymeric microcapsules for their controlled and sustained release or targeted delivery of drugs (like delivery of an anticancer drug only to the tumor).
This session presents the new biomass based composition from renewable resources. Now a day, it is clearly observed from the current scenario of environmental preservation a continuous definition and approval of growingly restrictive regulations and an increase in the market demand for products with a lower ecological footprint. Especially the automobile sector has been identified as one of the most involved in the adoption of protectionist measures towards the environment preservation, translating some of their major concerns in the increase of green materials demands. The technical performances of the developed base biopolymers will be enhanced by means of the addition of natural reinforcements functionalized to better tailor its properties of compatibility, dispersion, aspect ratio, etc.
This session represent Properties and Materials Applications, Polysaccharides, Alginates, Reduction of the dependence on fossil resources.
The market for renewable chemicals is in its infancy and is projected to witness dynamic growth at a CAGR of over 10.0% between 2015 and 2020
The marketing mix is an important part of the marketing of polymers and consists of the marketing 'tools' you are going to use. But marketing strategy is more than the marketing of mixed polymers and plastics. The marketing strategy sets your marketing goals, defines your target markets and describes how you will go about positioning the business to achieve advantage over your competitors. The marketing mix, which follows from your marketing strategy, is how you achieve that 'unique selling proposition' and deliver benefits to your customers.
When you have developed your marketing strategy, it is usually written down in a marketing plan. The plan usually goes further than the strategy, including detail such as budgets. You need to have a marketing strategy before you can write a marketing plan. Your marketing strategy may serve you well for a number of years but the details, such as budgets for marketing activities, of the marketing plan may need to be updated every year.
The controlled combustion of polymers produces heat energy. The heat energy produced by the burning plastic municipal waste not only can be converted to electrical energy but also helps burn the wet trash that is present. Paper also produces heat when burned, but not as much as do plastics. On the other hand, glass, aluminium and other metals do not release any energy when burned. The disposal of polymer solid waste by means other than landfilling is necessary.
- Recycling of plastic waste by density separation
- Polymers in plastic industry
- Growth opportunities in shifting polymers markets
- Industry profitability for investments on polymers
- Identify most cost-effective raw materials to use
- Polymers in textile marketing
Plastic is harmful because it is 'Non-Biodegradable'. When thrown on land it makes the soil less fertile. When thrown in water it chokes our ponds, rivers and oceans and harms the sea life. We can also help by using cloth bags for shopping instead of plastic bags. Recycling plastic is tricky business, and many plastics are better off as garbage. Recycling is generally far better than sending waste to landfills and relying on new raw materials to drive the consumer economy. It takes two-thirds less energy to make products from recycled plastic than from virgin plastic. The most obvious form of pollution associated with plastic packaging is wasted plastic sent to landfills. Plastics are very stable and therefore stay in the environment a long time after they are discarded, especially if they are shielded from direct sunlight by being buried in landfills. This waste rots and decomposes, and produces harmful gases (CO2 and Methane) which are both greenhouse gases and contribute to global warming. Landfills also pollute the local environment, including the water and the soil. ... It also affect the global warming and the environment. The waste can harm humans, animals, and plants if they encounter these toxins buried in the ground, in stream runoff, in groundwater that supplies drinking water, or in floodwaters, as happened after Hurricane Katrina. Some toxins, such as mercury, persist in the environment and accumulate. Chlorinated plastic can release harmful chemicals into the surrounding soil, which can then seep into groundwater or other surrounding water sources and also the ecosystem of the world. This can cause serious harm to the species that drink the water. Landfill areas contain many different types of plastics. Burning of plastic in the open air, leads to environmental pollution due to the release of poisonous chemicals. The polluted air when inhaled by humans and animals affect their health and can cause respiratory problems.